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Searching for an alternative energy source
Alternative energy generally means clean resource instead of burning carbons. These include wind, wave, tidal, solar, and geothermal energy. The problem of those energy resources lies in the conversion efficiency and technical difficulty of implementation. Some of them require more energy during their production process than all the summed up energy that they convert during their whole lifetime.
Electricity does not belong to alternative energy, of which production needs carbon burning or consumes other type of energy. Please think about, how much carbon should be burnt to run an electric car. Hydrogen fuel system is the same or worse than electricity in the sense of lost energy in its production. These are not ultimately clean energy resources.
There is another kind of alternative energy research, based on the concepts, that lies mostly outside the mainstream of scientific society. The researchers claim to extract energy from vacuum or ambient. There are several reasons that the mainstream scientists do not accept this concept. One biggest reason is poor reproducibility of its verification, even by the inventors/researchers themselves. This also means that the inventors/researchers cannot control the parameters, because they do not know how it works exactly.
The latest physics theories suggest that the vacuum contains an enormous amount of energy. This is called vacuum energy, zero point energy, or dark energy. Vacuum energy comes from the discoveries of quantum theory, empty space is not truly empty, but rather contains vast energy. Zero point signifies that such energy exists even at a temperature of absolute zero where no thermal effects remain. This term originally comes from Heisenberg's uncertainty principle to describe the fuzziness of the observation of nature into mathematics. Dark energy comes from the measurement of astrophysics, analysing the speed of expansion of the universe. From this analysis we can conclude that 70 % of our universe consists of unknown, invisible energy - dark energy.
According to the quantum electrodynamics calculation, the quantity of vacuum energy contained in a tiny dust (~104 Joule/µm3 ) would be more than enough to supply entire human being needs until the end of earth's age. We do not know whether such energy really exists. Or it might reflect a need of more complicated mathematical description, as in string theory or supersymmetry. Up to now, this theoretical energy value was close to any observations or at all.
Free energy research can mean finding the hidden energy that the conventional physics have missed out so far. Some researchers claim that it can be tapped from the enormous stores of vacuum energy as quantum mechanics calculates. Claims of free energy researchers violating of basic physics laws has discouraged academic scientists from doing any serious research in this area.
Invention 1: S-Cocktail
What is missing greatly from the conventional physics is creative life force term. This exclusion originates from the erroneous description of the second thermodynamic law - all chemical reactions should happen into more disorder, resulting in exclusion of the constructively ordering life phenomena. Some people call this life form orgone and some call it implosion. Without inclusion of such a term, physics equations cannot explain how the groundwater in wells rises far above the surface of the ground, or how such great amount water can be raised by the tree, or how thunderstorm can create so much electricity.
Water can accumulate and/or transform energy, and it is the foundation of all the life processes. S-cocktail is a patent pending water technology inspired by lightning phenomena.
In 2010, I started researching about Joe Cell, which is simply applicable to a car. I found the device saves fuel up to 35% in a diesel Smart forfour. Moreover the device showed interesting phenomenon: (1) it keeps voltage (or charge) between the two end electrodes for a long time, although it is all short circuited internally through electrolysing water, (2) the voltage between the electrodes can increase on a certain condition by changing the air pressure, (3) the device can keep the temperature as low as 36 °C, while the neighbouring parts in the engine room shows higher than twice of its temperature, and (4) some material in the device is transmutated, this means it created some elements that I did not put in. This kind of low temperature transmutation has been also observed in cold fusion area, of which official name is Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR). LENR may be the only area of unconventional science that has attracted academic interests, and now being commercialised by several companies in the world.
Later on I realised that, if water is charged enough, it attracts charges without having a charger like Joe Cell. S-cocktail shows enhanced electrostatic recharging behaviour and high catalysing behaviour in combustion. The key parameter to make this property in the water is incorporating right kind of metal nanoparticles and controlling temperature and pH values.
S-cocktail shows unique charging behaviour from ambient. When s-cocktail is immersed in an electrolysis system, it attracts ambient charge, building up an electrostatic potential in the electrode. When it is short circuited, the short circuit current (Isc) starting from over 2.3 mA and saturates towards 1 mA, which seems to be the balance point of charging from ambient and discharging into the circuit. The system builds up an electrostatic potential again when it is open circuited. This means that the accumulated charge can be consumed by connecting a load and it accumulated charge from ambient if the load is disconnected. This process can be repeated.
(a) Open circuit voltage recovery
(b) Short circuit current retention
To understand the aforementioned phenomenon, we need to deeply understand what electrostatic charge is and how water can create charges. A single bolt of lightning contains 5 billion joules of energy, enough to power a household for a month. On the earth 14 billion times of lightning flash in a year. The energy of a thunderstorm equals that of an atom bomb. We need to explain how friction of air/water molecules can create this much of energy.
Lightning does not happen in all clouds, but it needs certain conditions. A large difference of the temperature in a small area is a condition to make air/water turbulence. To ignite the separated charges, small particles like dusts have to be involved. There are more to be explained, however, we do not know exactly how.
I believe that this electrostatic accumulation and discharge is the key parameter for extra energy as lightning shows an abnormal charging behaviour. When S-cocktail is vaporised, it becomes like charged cloud. Combustion is simply any atom combining with oxygen and emitting energy. Because of the energy emission, the air/fuel expands and the combustion chamber warms up. However, when the electrostatic discharges, the chamber does not warm up that much due to the contribution of implosion. At the time when the charged vapour is ignited by a spark, hidden energy is attracted (or released in some sense) and expands the water molecules. This process happens obviously only when the temperature and air/water mixture ratio is well balanced.
Up to now, the easiest application of S-Cocktail is fuel additive. S-Cocktail can be introduced into a combustion system via air-intake or via emulsifying with fuel. As a result of catalytic reaction in combustion by S-Cocktail, light-off temperature is lowered, CO creation is reduced, NOx creation is reduced and combustion efficiency was enhanced.
S-Cocktail has high combustion catalysis behaviour. The picture shows the flame of butane gas lighter of (a) without treatment; (b) placed in the S-cocktail vapour; and (c) 5 sec after S-cocktail vapour was stopped. As the picture shows, the brightness of flame is obviously enhanced by S-cocktail vapour and the effect stays for a while. Colour change into yellow direction is attributed to the metal nanoparticle combustion .
Flame of butane gas lighter (a) without any treatment, (b) placed within S-cocktail vapour, (c) 5 sec after the vapour was stopped.
The following table shows the performance of S-Cocktail when it was applied in the car as a fuel saver.
S-cocktail can be used as fuel itself. In this approach, I did not use hydrogen. Through a series of experiments with a 720 W generator, what I confirmed up to Sept. 2014 is as follows: i) S-Cocktail provided through a fuel intake line can run up to 1 min; ii) S-Cocktail provided through air intake duct can run up to 2 min; iii) 70% of S-Cocktail and 30% of ethanol provided through fuel intake line can run an engine stable; and iv) when ethanol liquid and S-Cocktail vapour are mixed in a bubbler, the power is 138% higher than ethanol itself. To extract energy from water, we have to control 2 parameters : i) temperature and ii) level and place of air mixture.
Invention 2: Energy Harmoniser
Some researchers claim that free energy is influenced by human consciousness. In other words, this can also mean that there is some strange factor in free energy machines, which distracts the reproducibility of the experiment. Wilhelm Reich mentioned it as Y-factor.
As human beings, we all experience electrostatic phenomena - goose bump. When we are excited, we have goose bumps on the skin. This is the moment that we attract ambient charges into the skin. More electrostatic charges surround as the emotion gets more excited. Before we understand this phenomenon, we should know that the earth does not show charge conservation. The earth surface is always negatively charged in spite of that the atmosphere receives positive cosmic rays since ever. I believe that the living beings are consumers of the charges.
I believe that positive electrostatic charges, e.g. protons, activate the life force and negative charges, e.g. electrons, relaxes the life force. An alkaline body can attract positive electrostatic charges better than an acidic body, due to the OH- radicals. To simplify, an alkaline body recharges and an acidic body discharges. If we want to be active, we make our body alkaline, and if we want to relax, we make our body acidic. This is the secret of the healthy body. The 3 life balancing factors are pH, temperature and information.
A free energy device is actually an extreme recharging body. Strong alkaline water in the device attracts ambient charge. This device can function as a discharging body, or a charge emitting body, if the water in the device is acidic. Based on this idea, I got to invent an energy harmoniser.
Basically the device can be the same as the S-Cocktail charger. While S-Cocktail is strong alkaline aqueous solution, the solution in the energy harmoniser employs strong acid aqueous solution. The electrode connection needs to be reversed in reference to the S-Cocktail charger. This energy harmoniser absorbs negative ions, so that the living being near this device can remain positively charged. This makes the body feel more excited and energised. Further functions and characteristics of the energy harmoniser are under research.
Problems of conventional physics 1: Atmospheric charge and lightning
Do we really understand the lightning phenomena? Do we really understand charge and energy conservation in the global electric circuit?
The answer is actually no. The research on earth's electric phenomena began longer than 150 years ago. The big questions remain still unanswered.
- What is the actual source of cosmic rays?
- The earth is receiving cosmic rays which is mainly (positively charged) protons since ever. However, why is the earth not changing the net charge?
- On the contrary, the surface of the earth is always staying negatively charged with -500,000 Coulomb. How is this possible?
- How can the ice/water turbulence in thunderstorm cloud separate charges so efficiently, which does not break down until it reaches average 100 million Volt?
In its early time, a few hypotheses have been made based on insufficient measurements. These hypotheses became a classical model and have been taught for many years. However as the measurement data becomes richer, the classical model does not seem to be valid any more. We are confronting more complexity due to new findings above the thunderstorms, e.g. elves, sprites, blue jet streams, and even antimatter creations, which is called dark lightning.
It seems that thunderstorm is as powerful as a fusion reactor. Thermodynamically calculated by convection behaviour, 1500 Joule / kg, or 300 times more energy than gasoline is contained in a typical thunderstorm cloud. (This value is not estimated from a large statistics.) From this thumb rule calculation, an average thunderstorm, as big as a normal city size with 100 km2, and 10 km height is comparable to a small atomic bomb (~50 Tera Joule). Statistically, 15 million of such thunderstorms are occurring each year. A single bolt of lightning has energy equal to 150 litres of gasoline, and 100 bolts of lightning happen each second. If we consider this earth and the atmosphere a global electric circuit, thunderstorm is a major electricity generator of this circuit.
Charge conservation does not work that simply on this planet
In the atmosphere, in average 100 Volts per metre arise up to until it reaches 300,000 Volt at 30 Km, and 2000 Ampere of current flows down to the earth surface on a fine day. The source of the current is supposed to be cosmic rays, mainly protons, therefore the atmosphere is charge positively. In the classical model by Wilson a hundred years ago, this charge deposition on the earth by the atmospheric current is hypothesised to be discharged by lightning. This hypothesis was made by observing the time of electric field change, not by actual measurement of the lightning currents. If this hypothesis had been right, there needs no contribution from cosmic ray for creating 2000 Ampere, because the undischarged positive ions on top of the thunderstorm cloud will charge the atmosphere, causing 2000 Ampere of the atmospheric current. However, this hypothesis is questioned according to more advanced measurements.
We do not know how is the surface of the earth negatively charged with -500,000 Coulomb in spite of the positive ion currents with 2000 Ampere down to the ground. To neutralise -500,000 Coulomb on the ground, it takes only 4 minutes for the atmospheric current. This means that there is a source of unlimited negative charge to neutralise these positive ions, or something is taking these positive ions away. The classical model by Wilson hypothesised that lightning is neutralising the charges. I am going to show that this does not match with the actual lightning measurements.
From the statistics of lightning measurements, an average cloud to ground lightning discharges 30,000 Ampere at peak and carries 15 Coulombs of charge and this happens 20 times per each second from cloud down to the ground out of 100 total lightning bolts. It is calculated from the statistics that lightning carries -300 Coulomb per second, or -300 Ampere to the ground. This value is approximately 7 times lower than the atmospheric current. This means something else is taking the positive charges that came from the atmosphere and only 15% is taken or neutralised by lightning. If we consider that there is reversed polarity lightning from the positive top of the cloud down to the negative ground, the net lightning discharge would be less than 15% of the atmospheric current.
We need to find out where the 85% of the positive ions go, or where is the unlimited negative charge source to balance these positive ions. There are a plenty of commercial negative ion generators made from crystals and mud without need of electricity. The earth might have the characteristics of generating negative ions. I hypothesise that the ambient charges can be generated or consumed violating the law of charge conservation. I hypothesise that living creatures are the consumers of the positive and negative ions, therefore energy is generated in their body.
Energy conversion efficiency and dielectric constants are unrealistically high in thunderstorm
The electrical energy in the atmosphere according to the current and voltage on a fine day renders at a rate of 600 Mega Watt, or 5 Tera Watt-hour each year. On the other hand, lightning generates 16 Tera Watt of electricity all over the earth, which is about 140,000 Tera Watt-hour per year. If we estimate the energy in the thunderstorm thermodynamically according to the instability of the cloud (CAPE), it renders each thunderstorm has 50 Tera Joule of energy and it occurs 15 Million times each year ( = 200,000 Tera Watt-hour thermodynamically). This also means that the thunderstorm electricity generator is close to an ideal energy converter of mechanical movement into electrical charge. Charge separation is made through collision of water/air molecules, or identical to Lenard Effect, of which a high efficiency cannot be reproduced by an artificial experiment.
The thermal instability latent in thunderstorm cloud can generate electricity with a very high efficiency by rubbing water / air molecules. This is another characteristic of atmospheric charges. If temperature and ion content conditions meet, rubbing (or collision) of water/air molecules generates electrostatic charges with a high efficiency. Not all the unstable clouds (or high CAPE) make lightning if the temperature and ion conditions do not meet.
I make a simplest model of a typical thunderstorm cloud with a volume of 1,000 Km3, positive upper region with 10,000 Coulomb and negative lower region with -10,000 Coulomb (±10 Coulomb / Km3). The voltage in the cloud is 100 million Volt. If we consider this as a parallel plate capacitor, the stored energy is
Energy = Voltage × Charge = 1 Tera Joule
The energy of this model is not high enough to be an average thunderstorm. The energy of this model summing 14 million thunderstorms each year renders 4,000 Tera Watt-hour. This value is 35 times lower than the estimation based on satellite analysis is 140,000 Tera Watt-hour.
An average thunderstorm must have 35 Tera Joule. But 1 Tera Joule already does not make sense if we see the parameters. There are 2 ways to increase the energy in the cloud, either increase the number of charges exceeding 10,000 Coulomb or increase the voltage. An average voltage in the cloud of 100 million Volt is a statistic from more than 10 measurements. We have no need to increase it to fit the energy. To increase number of charges, we can set charge density higher than 10 Coulomb / Km3, or set the volume of a typical cloud larger. The volume of cloud with 1,000 Km3 is a moderate value according to the statistics and bigger than this size is categorised as a super cell. The charge density of a thunderstorm is known to be in the range of 5 - 35 Coulomb / Km3. We may attempt to choose charge density higher than 10 Coulomb / Km3. However, 10 Coulomb / Km3 is already unrealistic, if we assess the dielectric constant of the cloud,
We consider thunderstorm as a simple parallel capacitor with 100 Km2 area and 10 Km height. Capacitance = charge / voltage = 10-4 F
If we calculate the dielectric constant ɛr from the capacitance and the geometry, Capacitance = Area × ɛr × ɛ0 / distance, this makes the dielectric constant equal to 1,000, which is impossible for water and air molecules! Thunderstorm clouds are behaving like no leakage insulator until it breaks down by lightning. Before it builds such a high number of charges, it should have made lightning already.
Atmospheric ions do not move as electromagnetism or relativity regulate
A classical model, that only the place with abundant positive ions will create thunderstorms, may explain the charge balance. If we hypothesise that 1,000 Ampere of positive ions are lifted up to the cloud (although there is no clue) and making charges in it, and the negative charges at the bottom of the cloud is creating 1,000 Ampere again, making 2,000 Ampere in total. If we accept this hypothesis, we have to explain what is gathering positive ions locally in spite of the high conductivity of the ground? If there is any charge imbalance, it should be depleted immediately. If we accept this model, we may have to conclude that the atmospheric positive ions do not react to electric field as they are supposed to be.
Let's examine lightning sequence as was set by Uman through photographic analysis.
Under the thunderstorm, positive ions start to gather, due to the induction force from the negative charge in the lower part of the cloud and high conductivity of the earth surface. This positive may come from the atmospheric current on fine days. According to my charge calculation, the ground under thunderstorm is has 5% of the positive ion that came from the atmosphere.
Step leader: Electrons in the negative region of thunderstorm start to make step leaders to come down to the earth, and it takes 0.01 second.
Up streamer: When the stepped leader approaches the ground, carrying some 5 Coulomb of charge, a this amount of positive charge is induced below it and an upward-moving discharge some 30-50 m long comes up to meet it. If we follow the theory by Kasemir, as negatively charged leaders approach, increasing the localized electric field strength, grounded objects with sharp edges experience corona discharge and form upward streamers. Regardless of whether this hypothesis is right or not, we have to admit that the positive charge is easily detachable from the ground and flowing through non-conducting materials easily. Such charge has to be at least gas phase or nano dust phase.
Return stroke: after the initiate the first violent, luminous discharge near the Earth, this high luminosity (and high current) then moves up the leader channel and out its branches at between one-half and one-tenth the speed of light. This return stroke is the most powerful part of lightning. The core temperature of the plasma during the return stroke may exceed 50,000 K, causing bright light with a blue-white color. The positive charges in the ground region surrounding the lightning strike are neutralized within microseconds as they race inward to the strike point, up the plasma channel, and back to the cloud. A huge surge of current creates large radial voltage differences along the surface of the ground. The size of positive ions does not allow them to move at this high speed in an air rich ambient due to collision with air molecules. On top of this, as the particle gets close to the speed of light, it becomes heavier due to the relativity principle! The lightest positive ion, proton can be accelerated close to the light speed only by accelerating in a vacuum chamber like CERN. This might be another characteristic of the ambient positive ions being able to move faster than they are supposed to be.
Here is a summary of abnormal behaviour of atmospheric ions and my hypothesis:
- Some positive atmospheric charges are consumed and created violating charge conservation. The earth is creating negative charges violating charge conservation. The living creatures on earth consume and balance those charges, therefore create energy in them.
- The positive atmospheric charges can move along non-conductive paths.
- The positive atmospheric charges can move faster or slower than they are supposed to be according to the electromagnetic and the relativistic law.
- If water/air molecules have right condition of temperature and ion content, they can create charges and energy higher than its genuine dielectric property can hold.
- Large amount electrostatic charges can be created through turbulence - collision and rubbing of water/air molecules.