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Yoga, Meditation, Energy Training, Qigong

Reductions in heart rate after 40-60 minutes of Jung-Choong breathing, over 3 trials

Baseline and three-month follow-up scores for quality of life among Brain Education practitioners, USA

(higher scores indicate better status)

Source: Journal of General Internal Medicine. 2004; 19: 760-65.

 
 

Changes in depressive symptoms, trait anxiety, and self-efficacy, as percentage of baseline score (n=114)  

Hindawi Publishing Corporation

Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine

Volume 2012, Article ID 234713, 13 pages

doi:10.1155/2012/234713

A Comparative Randomised Controlled Trial of the Effects of BrainWave Vibration Training, Iyengar Yoga, and Mindfulness on

Mood, Well-Being, and Salivary Cortisol

Deborah Bowden 1 Claire Gaudry 2 Seung Chan An 2 and John Gruzelier 1

1 Psychology Department, Goldsmiths, University of London, ITC Building, New Cross, London SE14 6NW, UK

2 Korea Institute of Brain Science, Caroline Tower, 613-5, Sinsa-dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-894, Republic of Korea

This randomised trial compared the effects of BrainWave Vibration (BWV) training, which involves rhythmic yoga-like meditative exercises, with Iyengar yoga and Mindfulness. Iyengar provided a contrast for the physical components and mindfulness for the “mental” components of BWV. 35 healthy adults completed 10 75-minute classes of BWV, Iyengar, orMindfulness over five weeks. Participants were assessed at pre- and postintervention for mood, sleep, mindfulness, absorption, health, memory, and salivary cortisol. Better overall mood and vitality followed both BWV and Iyengar training, while the BWV group alone had improved depression and sleep latency. Mindfulness produced a comparatively greater increase in absorption. All interventions improved stress and mindfulness, while no changes occurred in health, memory, or salivary cortisol. In conclusion, increased well-being followed training in all three practices, increased absorption was specific to Mindfulness, while BWV was unique in its benefits to depression and sleep latency, warranting further research. Download full article

 

Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

ISSN 1025-3890 print/ISSN 1607-8888 online

DOI: 10.3109/10253890.2011.592880

Influence of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and catechol O-methyl transferase polymorphisms on effects of meditation on plasma catecholamines and stress

YE-HA JUNG 2, DO-HYUNG KANG 1, MIN SOO BYUN 1, GEUMSOOK SHIM 1, SOO JIN KWON 2, GO-EUN JANG 2, UL SOON LEE 3, SEUNG CHAN AN 3, JOON HWAN JANG 1, & JUN SOO KWON 1,2

1 Department of Neuropsychiatry, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea,

2 Neuroscience Institute, Clinical Cognitive Neuroscience Center, SNU-MRC, Seoul, Republic of Korea, and 3Korean Institute of Brain Science, Seoul, Republic of Korea

Meditation may show differential effects on stress and plasma catecholamines based on genetic polymorphisms in brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and catechol O-methyl transferase (COMT). Eighty adults (40 men, 40 women; mean age 26 years) who practiced meditation regularly and 57 healthy control adults (35 men, 22 women; mean age 26 years) participated. Plasma catecholamines (norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E), and dopamine (DA)) concentrations were measured, and a modified form of the Stress Response Inventory was administered. The results were analyzed using two-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) with control and meditation subjects, gene polymorphism as factors, and meditation duration as the covariate. Two-way ANCOVA showed a significant interaction between control and meditation subjects, and BDNF Val66Met polymorphism on DA/NE þ DA/E ( p ¼ 0.042) and NE/E þ NE/DA ( p ¼ 0.046) ratios. A significant interaction was found for control and meditation subjects with COMT Val158Met polymorphism and plasma NE concentrations ( p ¼ 0.009). Post hoc ANCOVA in the meditation group, adjusted for meditation duration, showed significantly higher plasma NE concentrations for COMT Met carriers than COMT Val/Val subjects ( p ¼ 0.025). Significant differences of stress levels were found between the control and meditation subjects in BDNF Val/Met ( p , 0.001) and BDNF Met/Met ( p ¼ 0.003), whereas stress levels in the BDNF Val/Val genotype did not differ between the control and meditation groups. This is the first evidence that meditation produces different effects on plasma catecholamines according to BDNF or COMT polymorphisms.  Download full article

Neuroscience Letters 479 (2010) 138–142

The effects of mind–body training on stress reduction, positive affect, and plasma catecholamines

Ye-Ha Jung a, Do-Hyung Kang b,∗, Joon Hwan Jang c, Hye Yoon Park c, Min Soo Byun c, Soo Jin Kwon a, Go-Eun Jang a, Ul Soon Leed, Seung Chan And, Jun Soo Kwon c,e

a Clinical Cognitive Neuroscience Center, Neuroscience Institute, SNU-MRC, Seoul, Republic of Korea

b Department of Neuropsychiatry, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea

c Department of Psychiatry, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea

d Korean Institute of Brain Science, Seoul, Republic of Korea

e Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences – World Class University Program, College of Natural Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea

This study was designed to assess the association between stress, positive affect and catecholamine levels in meditation and control groups. The meditation group consisted of 67 subjects who regularly engaged in mind–body training of “Brain-Wave Vibration” and the control group consisted of 57 healthy subjects. Plasma catecholamine (norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E), and dopamine (DA)) levels were measured, and a modified form of the Stress Response Inventory (SRI-MF) and the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS) were administered. The meditation group showed higher scores on positive affect (p = .019) and lower scores on stress (p < .001) compared with the control group. Plasma DA levels were also higher in the meditation (p = .031) than in the control group. The control group demonstrated a negative correlation between stress and positive affects (r =−.408, p = .002), whereas this correlation was not observed in the meditation group. The control group showed positive correlations between somatization and NE/E (r = .267, p = .045) and DA/E (r = .271, p = .042) ratios, whereas these correlations did not emerge in the meditation group. In conclusion, these results suggest that meditation as mind–body training is associated with lower stress, higher positive affect and higher plasma DA levels when comparing the meditation group with the control group. Thus, mind–body training may influence stress, positive affect and the sympathetic nervous system including DA activity.  Download full article

 

Neuroscience Letters 487, Issue 3, 10 January 2011, Pages 358–362

Increased default mode network connectivity associated with meditation

Joon Hwan Jang a,Wi Hoon Jung b, Do-Hyung Kang a, Min Soo Byun a, Soo Jin Kwon c, Chi-Hoon Choi d, Jun Soo Kwon a,b,c,e,∗

a Department of Psychiatry, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea

b Interdisciplinary Programin Brain Science, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea

c Clinical Cognitive Neuroscience Center, Neuroscience Institute, SNU-MRC, Seoul, Republic of Korea

d Department of Diagnostic Radiology, National Medical Center, Seoul, Republic of Korea

e Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences – World Class University Program, College of Natural Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea

Areas associated with the default mode network (DMN) are substantially similar to those associated with meditation practice. However, no studies on DMN connectivity during resting states have been conducted on meditation practitioners. It was hypothesized that meditators would show heightened functional connectivity in areas of cortical midline activity. Thirty-five meditation practitioners and 33 healthy controls without meditation experience were included in this study. All subjects received 4.68-min resting state functional scanning runs. The posterior cingulate cortex and medial prefrontal cortex were chosen as seed regions for the DMN map. Meditation practitioners demonstrated greater functional connectivity within the DMN in the medial prefrontal cortex area (x y z = 3 39 −21) than did controls. These results suggest that the long-term practice of meditation may be associated with functional changes in regions related to internalized attention even when meditation is not being practiced.  Download full article

 

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